Human-Wildlife Conflict in Buffer Zone Area: A Study of Banke National Park, Nepal

Keywords: Banke National Park; Crop damage; Human-Wildlife Conflict; People’s perception

Page Number(s): 63

Year Published: 2011


This dissertation assesses the various aspects of human-wildlife conflict (HWC) in Buffer zone area of Banke National Park (BaNP).Two villages Thanti and Kalikholi of Goltakuri VDC of Dang were selected for this study. During April and May 2010, ethnographic data were collected using combination of social survey methods, semi-structured questionnaire survey of households, on-site focal group discussions, formal and informal interviews and key informant interviews. The objective of this study was to explore impact of human-wildlife conflict in the study area.

Socio-economic indicators such as land holding size, family size, educational level, migration, gender and ethnicity were calculated. The major crops grown in the area were Maize, Wheat, Mustard and Paddy. Maize was the primary crop accounting about half of the economic value of total production. The average number of livestock per HHs was around 15. The average number of Goat and Sheep is highest along with cattle and chicken.

The people in two study site perceived that crop depredation was the major problem caused by the wild animals. Most destructive wild animals were Wild Boar, Monkey, Porcupine, and Wild Bear. Most respondents believed that the populations of these problem animals were increasing and incident of human-wildlife conflict was also increasing. Among crops, the damage to Maize was high. A total average damage of Maize per year per HH was 583.4 Kg. Economic value of average annual damage per year per HH accounted for NRs, 11709.35.

With regards to why wild animals come to the crop land? Nearly 70% responded that the poor availability of food in the forest was the main problem. Other reasons were increase in the number of wild animals, in search of water and palatable food and destruction of habitat. Regarding the measures to mitigate HWC, most of them have applied different local technologies. Among them loud vocal sound by the people was the common method. Other methods included noise making tools such as clapper and drum, stone and dust throwing, chasing with fire, regular watching wild animal from guarding tower locally known as Atta and use of dog to chase. 

The villagers believed that HWC will increase in the future as animals will increase due to protection. Promotion of alternative income generating methods, alternative energy and improved cooking stoves can reduce the HWC indirectly through decreasing the dependency in forest resources. Environmental awareness program and public participation are other major aspects that should be considered to mitigate the human-wildlife conflict.

Type of Publication: Dissertations