Jagger’s research has contributed to the theoretical and empirical literatures on poverty-environment relationships, including providing new insights into the role of reliance on environmental goods and services in rural livelihoods strategies and economic equality. The overarching goal of this research is to understand the relationship between environmental dependence and human welfare; this association is often complex and dynamic, and is mediated by several factors including governance, property rights and land tenure. Research focused on the dynamics of land use change includes a focus on both temporary and permanent rural-rural migration. Household air pollution research links theory and methods from the fields of demography, respiratory epidemiology, nutrition, spatial analysis, and advanced multi-level and longitudinal statistics to understand the population, land use and health dynamics surrounding reliance on biomass for cooking and heating. The core hypothesis of this research is that supply-side factors including land use and land cover change, access to markets, and institutions for environmental management influence biomass fuel use and cooking technology choices, which in turn has implications for health and welfare.